1. Name for your computer that actually has a keyboard, screen, etc (my attempt localhost?)
"My Computer", "my workstation", "my machine". the handy domain "localhost" exists on servers as a reference to "Self" so saying localhost makes it unclear just what machine you're talking about. On EVERY machine with networking "localhost" refers to itself.
2. Name for the URL and server name on the Vps (my attempt remote server)
URL, The server itself. Live server. A server is a server whether it's serving via URI or by IP. Not sure what "server name" has to do with anything.
It's a server, remote has nothing to do with it.